Note: 1) from a rational point of view, biscuits should be rectangular (excluding drop biscuits) (forming and shaping dough); making round biscuits is not convenient since the scraps have to be kneaded and formed into a rectangle which probably makes several of the biscuits a different texture than the others because the dough becomes more elastic each time the scraps are kneaded, 2) the three irregular baked biscuits in the pictures below are probably biscuits made with more elastic dough, 3) arranging the biscuits on a baking sheet by leaving no spaces between the biscuits may prevent the biscuits from leaning while baking; however, the biscuits may not cook evenly using this strategy, 4) the definition of a biscuit may not include using small pans with sides (bake the biscuits in ramekins or muffin tins)
Biscuits made similarly to puff pastry are very delicate and crispy on the outside. They are more similar to biscuits made from dough in a can. I discovered puff dough last week. Puff pastry is flaky. I decided to make flaky biscuits by applying the techniques for making puff pastry dough to biscuits. I looked at some information online. Some people call puff pastry dough a laminated dough (definition).
Puff pastry is an unleavened laminated dough. The dough for making croissants is a laminated dough leavened with yeast. These biscuits are prepared similarly to puff pastry and croissants. They are leavened with a lot of baking powder and baking soda. Croissants may contain milk. These biscuits contain buttermilk. Danishes, palmier cookies (pronunciation), kouign amann (pronunciation), and sticky buns are also made with laminated dough.
There are a lot of choices to consider when planning to create a new recipe for biscuits. In general, biscuits can be made with butter, shortening, lard, or combinations of lard or shortening and butter . Some people say that lard contains the most amount of moisture . I would have to research or make an experiment to determine if laminated dough can be made with lard or shortening. Lard and shortening may lack the flavor that butter gives to something baked.
People serious about making flaky biscuits desire cold butter. The butter is used to add flavor and to release moisture. The force of the evaporating moisture creates the flaky texture of the biscuit. When the butter is cold there is potentially more moisture to release while the biscuits are baking. Also, cold butter cannot be mixed perfectly with flour. A biscuit dough containing cold butter usually contains chunks of butter. These chunks release moisture that creates flaky biscuits. By making biscuits similarly to puff dough or croissants, the sizes of these chunks can be reduced significantly. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated to chill the dough.
Download The Recipe:
1. “How Croissant Dough Works,” PBS Food, accessed February 2, 2017, http://www.pbs.org/food/chefsteps/croissant-dough-works/.
2. “What Is Laminated Dough?,” The Kitchn, accessed February 2, 2017, http://www.thekitchn.com/what-is-laminated-dough-211917.