Julia Child Gave Me What I Wanted – To Observe People Using Advanced Bread Making Techniques


Julia Child saves the day! This is something special to know that somebody might currently have to go to school in a large city to observe and learn. I observed a French baker shape baguettes, use a couche [1][2], and I observed a baker use a transfer peel (or flip board). I needed this information. Jacques Pépin replaces a couche with dish towels and wooden dividers. The wooden dividers can be replaced with other things. I have used cans of food. Julia also forms bâtards. These are the advanced baking techniques people use in big cities [1]. This video is supposedly from 1971. I put a citation for some written information in a colorful and exciting book, The Way to Cook, by Julia Child. I discovered this book in a citation in a book on French sauces. This book does not seem to be demanding or intimidating. This baker may be a professor from France that is important to Julia Child, Thomas Keller, and to many other bread makers.

Julia Child The French Chef- French Bread


1. Julia Child: The Way to Cook (New York: Knopf, 1989), 35-44.

2. Jacques Pépin: Jacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 553-560.

Basic French Bread Recipe Using Contemporary Techniques Inspired By Thomas Keller

Basic French Bread Recipe Using Contemporary Techniques Inspired By Thomas Keller




Attempting to make French bread with a mixer can be frustrating. A mixer will only knead my current recipe sometimes (on a humid day). This can be fixed by observing the work of Thomas Keller and Jacques Pépin. Jacques reminds people that firm dough should be kneaded by hand. Thomas Keller reminds people that slack dough can be kneaded with a machine. Someone makes slack dough by increasing the amount of water in the recipe (by increasing the percentage of water). My new recipe is based on information from Thomas Keller’s Bouchon Bakery. He gives people enough information to use algebra and arithmetic to create recipes intelligently (rationally).

There are four things someone should know about making bread with a mixer:

  1. Firm dough must be kneaded by hand
  2. A mixer can be used to mix firm dough, but it cannot knead firm dough
  3. A mixer can mix and knead slack dough
  4. Someone must start and stop the mixer to push a firm slack dough in the bowl while kneading the dough with a mixer

This recipe uses advanced bread baking techniques while preserving the speed and simplicity for making bread with basic baking techniques. Someone may have to stretch the dough of bread made with advanced baking techniques several times to give slack dough structure. Stretching the dough develops gluten that uses the gases made during the fermentation process to make the bread rise. People probably do not have to stretch firm dough because firm dough has enough gluten to make the bread rise during the fermentation process. The recipe in this blog post makes firm slack dough using contemporary techniques for making slack dough. The flavor and texture of bread made using these techniques are exciting. The bread is nutty and slightly sour. The texture is soft and slightly chewy.

To make this bread, I used Thomas Keller’s ideas for creating a humid oven with a constant temperature. He recommends using a pizza stone, and putting rocks and a chain in a pan in the oven. These things can create a sauna by putting water on hot rocks. I used oven mitts and a glass measuring cup to put water on the rocks. Putting something cool in the oven decreases the temperature of the oven. The hot rocks and chain add a source of heat to the oven that reduces the effect of putting something in the oven. Baking bread on stone browns the bread differently and makes a crispier crust. Jacques Pepin’s Complete Techniques has the ideas I remember from my childhood for using quarry stones. Some people believe that this may be dangerous. I read a Safety Data Sheet for the stones I used to bake this bread. The information did not suggest the tiles were toxic. I believed that I would prefer to use a pizza stone since pizza stones are made for cooking. While using the tiles, I put the bread on parchment paper.


  1. Where the ‘Weight of Flour In Dough’ equals x, 2/3*x=’Weight of Poolish’ (Keller, p. 270)
  2. A poolish has an equal amount of flour and water; divide the weight of the poolish by 2 to know the amount of flour and water


Choose the weight of the flour, x. My original loaf uses 550 grams of flour. Since x equals 550 g, the weight of my poolish is 366 g. Make a poolish with 183 g of flour and 183 g of water.


flour 183 g
yeast 0.2 g (1/2 teaspoon)
water 183 g

flour 550 g (100%)
yeast 2 g (0.2%)
water 275 g (50%)
table salt 14 g (3%)

Mix the ingredients for the poolish in a bowl, cover loosely, and let stand for 12-15 hours in a place that is about 75°F/24°C.

Put half of the flour and the yeast in a mixing bowl. Pour room temperature water into the poolish. Pour the poolish in the mixing bowl. Mix the ingredients to make very thick batter. Add the flour 1/4 cup at a time. Once someone has created smooth firm slack dough, add the salt. Knead for 20 minutes. Use a spatula to push the dough off the hook every 2 minutes. Put the dough in an oiled bowl to rise for 2 hours. Put the dough on a floured surface. Pre-shape the dough. Form the dough to make a large bâtard by hand (I will have to make a blog post for making a bâtard in the future). Bake the bread at 400°F/205°C degrees until the bread has an internal temperature of 200°F/93°C, about 20 minutes.

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Basic French Bread Recipe Using Contemporary Techniques

1. Thomas Keller: Bouchon Bakery (New York: Artisan, 2012), 270, 254-285.

2. Jacques Pépin: Jacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 553-560.

Blind Baking A Deep Dish Pizza Crust

Blind Baking A Deep Dish Pizza Crust


Note: 1) there should be a picture showing that I moved the raw crust over the pan with a rolling pin, 2) the best cutting technique for trimming the dough was holding the knife 90° outside the pan, 3) increase the proportion of an ingredient by 25% by multiplying the weight of it by 1.25

My previous goal was to use a springform pan to make a deep dish pizza. I had to abandon the springform pan for now. My new goal is to make a normal deep dish pizza. This blog post shows how to blind bake something using Thomas Keller’s advice. He uses rice because the beans leave indentations in the crust. I do not have a picture, but I believe from my own experience that this is true.  I used parchment paper because Jacques Pépin uses paper in his book of cooking methods and techniques. I used a tape measure to measure the bottom and sides of the pan, and I added some length for having overhang.  I added 1 additional tablespoon of flour to this recipe. Substituting corn oil with butter created an exciting flavor. I am not going to make flaky or laminated dough for this particular recipe. I am going to increase the proportions of this recipe 25% to determine if I can make the crust thicker. If the crust is too thick, the crust will be chewy. A thick chewy crust may be exciting to feed to a hungry family or as a substitute for chicken noodle soup when someone is ill, but Chicago Deep Dish pizzas sold in public do not have thick chewy crusts.

Download The Recipe:

Chicago Style Deep Dish Pizza Dough 3

Nuance – Finding The Foundation For The Science Of Cooking – Trick Vs. Technique

Nuance – Finding The Foundation For The Science Of Cooking – Trick Vs. Technique


I was studying to fill in gaps in my education. Engineering and computer science problems, and the math problems that entertained Einstein, require someone to be good at doing elementary math (arithmetic), algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. While I was doing this, I got a copy of Euclid’s Elements, and I read the forward. It was written by someone that used manuscripts from London and Paris and other places. After searching around on the internet, I discovered that people from Portugal have an interesting and technical approach to cooking food. I lacked the knowledge I needed to describe what I was searching to understand. There was something similar to the forward in Euclid’s Elements and recipes from Portugal. What I was searching for appeared to be related to math and science. Not necessarily contemporary industrial science, but natural philosophy and mathematics. While I was searching the internet for a cookbook, I found Escoffier. His books seemed to excite me in the same way that a geometry book excites me. After meeting Escoffier, I found Jacques Pépin. At his Facebook website, he has introduced me to gastronomy, Brillat-Savarin, and Oliver Raymond. His recipes are very exciting. After shopping for cookware, I met Thomas Keller. I read his books often. His books and my experience cooking with his recipes, and the recipes I have from meeting Jacques Pépin, led me to what I originally needed to know. I needed to know that a culinary artist must work to have new techniques and methods. Techniques and methods give a person the opportunity to think and understand how to cook. A collection of techniques and methods may be similar to learning the foundations of a science. Without knowing techniques and methods, I was collecting tricks for cooking. I believe that people would reject me if I said the phrase “tricks of the trade” because this would be a clear sign that I lack something that is important to the pretensions of my culture. I believed that people would believe that I am ignorant. Because contemporary philosophy is usually psychology, and since elementary knowledge is something given to children, I lacked the ability to be creative. I have had to give myself seminary lessons, prepare to read ancient Greek philosophy, and to be able to do arithmetic and algebra to solve problems, and finally study the culinary arts to recover from being abandoned to live as a critic of psychology. I am very happy that I met these chefs because they have given me the opportunity to be happy. I am now able to understand how I can use science to be a more creative person.


How To Make Mayonnaise – Une Emulsion Froide – A Cold Emulsion

How To Make Mayonnaise – Une Emulsion Froide – A Cold Emulsion





Today I am making mayonnaise with Jacques Pépin and Emeril Lagasse using the book The French Cook: Sauces by Holly Herrick. Emeril Lagasse has many exciting recipes for making mayonnaise. I chose the recipe in this blog post by Emeril Lagasse because it uses cayenne pepper. After putting this mayonnaise in the refrigerator for about an hour, I was able to believe that the flavor of the mayonnaise was great.

An emulsion is a sauce made with two immiscible liquids. People cannot mix immiscible liquids without an emulsifier. From a chemical point of view, an emulsifier probably bonds the molecules of the immiscible liquids. Mayonnaise is a type of emulsion. I am not able to find a satisfying explanation about why mayonnaise is an emulsion. Some explanations suggest the immiscible liquids in mayonnaise are the egg yolks and the oil. Other explanations explain that the vinegar and mustard contain water, and that egg yolks and an emulsifier in mustard emulsifies the water in the vinegar and the mustard with the oil. The latter (second) explanation is consistent with my experience reading about emulsifiers in books for culinary artists. The former (first) explanation requires someone to believe that the emulsifier is an immiscible liquid. [1][2][3]

Here are the things people need to know about making mayonnaise:

  1. People should believe that making mayonnaise is easy (and exciting)
  2. Use a non-reactive glass bowl because
    • Stainless may change the color of the mayonnaise
    • Copper and acid react and they will change the color of the mayonnaise
  3. Clean the bowl with white vinegar
  4. The ingredients should be room temperature
  5. Since bacteria in eggs can make someone ill, consider pasteurizing the eggs
    • Cook the eggs at 150°F/65.6°C for 4 minutes
    • Consider putting the eggs in ice water to stop them from cooking
  6. Some people explain that 1 egg yolk can emulsify 2/3 cup of oil, other ingredients may also contain emulsifiers
    • Consider this explanation as a reason for putting everything but the oil in the bowl before beating the ingredients to make the mayonnaise
  7. Using a spout on a bottle of oil may be appealing to some people
    • IMG_6344
      Fig. 1: Using A Spout
  8. Most people may use white pepper when making mayonnaise, some people may use other type of pepper, cayenne is an alternative to white pepper
  9. French mayonnaise is commonly made with Dijon, some people argue that adding Dijon makes the mayonnaise a rémoulade
  10. Most people may use (white) wine vinegar when making mayonnaise, someone probably may use any type of vinegar
  11. Mix the mayonnaise in one direction, because without doing science, and since mayonnaise is expensive to make, anything that offends the creaminess or smoothness of the mayonnaise can seem threatening or similar to anticipating the disappointment experienced when making curdled mayonnaise; the mayonnaise can appear to be chunky when using an electric whisk
  12. Mayonnaise can be made with vegetable, canola, sunflower, corn, and olive oil
  13. Using vegetable oil makes mayonnaise that tastes similarly to Hellmann’s mayonnaise
  14. A combination of canola, vegetable, and olive oil was interesting (1/2 cup canola, 1/4 cup vegetable, 1/4 cup olive oil)
  15. Bitter olive oil makes terrible mayonnaise
  16. Mayonnaise made with greater proportions of olive oil is probably good to use with sandwiches, but it is not exciting to eat with a spoon. Bitter olive oil also can make a vinaigrette offensive. The confusing problem is that the vinaigrette or mayonnaise may not be offensive on a sandwich or salad. Since there are so many different types of olive oil, my experience only applies to bitter extra virgin olive oil. A light olive oil may be as pleasing to use as canola oil.
  17. An electric whisk can be used to make recipes for making mayonnaise in a food processor. Use a bowl that is barely larger than the whisk, use the highest setting on the mixer, and mix the mayonnaise in one direction.

Pasteurizing The Eggs

Making Mayonnaise With Jacques Pépin


Making Mayonnaise With Emeril Lagasse With An Electric Whisk


Notes: 1) (Emeril Lagasse) vegetable oil makes mayonnaise with the flavor of Hellmann’s mayonnaise (Hellman’s may be popular) (1 cup vegetable oil or 1 cup vegetable oil + 1/4 cup olive oil), 2) (Thomas Keller) use canola oil or the canola oil used to make garlic confit, 3) (Thomas Keller) possibly use canola and French mustard (Edmond Fallot), 4) (Jacques Pépin) use greater proportions of flavorful ingredients: vinegar, use walnut, or tarragon oil, 5) use vinaigrette recipes for creating a new mayonnaise (sherry vinegar and red wine vinegar, balsamic vinegar), 6) consider adding fruit to mayonnaise, 7) experiment with different types of salt, 8) consider what the majority of people may prefer, 9) mayonnaise with a lot of mustard flavor may be called dijonnaise

Notes: 1) mayonesa: soybean oil, egg yolks, water, distilled vinegar, sugar, iodized salt, spices, lime juice concentrate, disodium edta (added to protect flavor), extractives of paprika, natural flavor, and extractives of red pepper, 2) water may be used to thin the mayonnaise

Download The Recipes:

Mayonnaise Of Jacques Pépin

Emeril’s Homemade Mayonnaise

Things People Need To Know About Making Mayonnaise

1. Holly Herrick: The French Cook: Sauces (Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2013), 75-78.

2. Jacques PépinJacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 124-126, 56-59.

3. Emeril Lagasse: Emeril’s Kicked-Up Sandwiches: Stacked with Flavor (New York: William Morrow, 2012), 309.

4. Fig. 1. Holly Herrick: The French Cook: Sauces (Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2013), 78.

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake



I started with a recipe in a book of cooking techniques. Since I have very little experience baking, and since much of the information on genoise cakes may be difficult to use and understand without experience baking, I had to make this cake several times. The first recipe that I used may have suggested that a hand mixer should be used to beat the batter over a saucepan of hot water. My hand mixer and mixing bowl combination cannot thicken or triple the volume of the batter. In my kitchen, only a stand mixer can create the batter. The saucepan of hot water should be taken off the stove, and the batter should probably only be beaten over the water until it is barely warm. The batter may be warmed to melt the sugar and to create a liquid that can be beaten to create a smooth batter that does not contain course sugar crystals. Videos from Gourmet Magazine, Everyday Food, and The Jacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques were very helpful resources.

This cake uses the recipe of Jacques Pépin. His cake seems to have a perfect texture and flavor. I believe that Jacques Pépin is usually very exciting and reliable. I did not add vanilla because I did not believe that adding vanilla was authentic. In general, I believe that 3 eggs should be used to make an 8-inch genoise cake and 5 eggs should be used to make a 9-inch genoise cake. Various recipes on the internet use about 1 cup of sugar and about 1 cup of flour. Using more flour probably makes the cake more dense, and using more sugar probably makes the cake more sweet. I am going to make the original recipe I used in the future. It uses more sugar and flour than the recipe of Jacques Pépin.

The top of a genoise cake should probably be light yellow and soft, not browned. The baking times in the recipes that I observed are much longer than I required to make an attractively baked genoise cake. I would recommend checking a cake after 15 minutes. Because the cakes are leavened with air, the cakes might collapse if the oven door is opened before the cakes are firm. The best indicator might be the smell. The cakes are probably baked perfectly just after smelling an attractive sweet smell. The smell of the genoise browning is not as attractive as the sweet smell. Using Jacques Pépin’s recipe with a springform pan did not appear to work well.

Jacques Pépin says that if the cake is not enriched with butter, then the cake may only have to beaten for 5 minutes. Adding the butter may deflate the cake. Beating the batter for a longer period of time appears to prevent the batter from deflating. I added pictures that may prove that the batter deflates. I sprinkled the flour into the batter using a strainer while folding the batter with one hand. Folding a mixture that has been relaxed seems to take less effort. I explained what relaxing a mixture is in my blog post on soufflés. I mixed a cup of the batter with melted butter. Then, I folded the mixture into the batter.

Notes: 1) someone can put berries between the layers of cake to support the top layer of cake

Decorating The Cake

Baking The Genoise

Making The Mousse


Imbibing The Genoise With Light Syrup And Kirschwasser

Making The Genoise With A Hand Mixer (Fail)

Making The Genoise In A Springform Pan After Beating For 5  Minutes (Fail)

Making The Genoise In A Springform Pan After Beating For 10 Minutes (Remove Top With Knife)

Download The Recipes:

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake


Strawberry Mousse

Light Syrup

1. Jeni Wright, Eric Treuille: Le Cordon Bleu Complete Cooking Techniques (New York: William Morrow And Company, Inc., 1996), 274, 281, 312-313, 315.

2. Jacques PépinJacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 124-126, 608-610.

Baked Rabbit With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts Of Jacques Pépin

Baked Rabbit With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts Of Jacques Pépin


This was a very successful dinner with Jacques Pépin. The rabbit was very good! I am so happy. This was my first rabbit. Rabbit meat is similar to chicken. The meat has a lot of flavor. The mustard crust was the best coating I had ever eaten on baked meat. I had to improvise because I did not have any bread. I am happy that I used fine bread crumbs. The Brussels sprouts sautéed with bacon were great!

The rabbit was browned, coated with mustard, and the mustard was coated with bread crumbs mixed with garlic and olive oil. The rabbit was baked for 20 minutes at 425°F/220°C. The book with cooking techniques from the Le Cordon Blue has instructions for jointing a rabbit. Someone should consider using an old chef’s knife. I put a cloth over the spine of the knife near the tip of the blade and I pushed on the cloth while I pushed down on the handle. This permits me to use the knife as a lever and to use my body weight to cut rabbits and chickens. Someday I might have poultry shears, but until I have poultry shears, this is my technique for jointing poultry and game. The rabbit is cut where the legs meet the back, and where the ribs meet the back. After cutting at these places, there will be three pieces of rabbit. Each piece can then be split in half using my technique for jointing rabbits and chickens.

Notes: 1) when compared to chicken, the meat of a rabbit is all white meat, 2) rabbit meat is moist, 3) most of the meat is a little more firm than chicken meat

Sometimes a writer at the New York Times named Sam Sifton includes seminary lessons in his weekly emails. He mentions interesting things about religion during religious holidays. I have a philosophical background. I have included something humorous that I have written to understand Easter based on my interpretation of the Bible. A French person may call their interpretation of the Bible their hermeneutics.

Why Jesus Christ Had To Die, Ideas From 2017

Baked Rabbit Cut To Make 6 Pieces With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts

The Rabbit

The Brussels Sprouts

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Fricassee of Brussels Sprouts and Bacon