Nuance – Finding The Foundation For The Science Of Cooking – Trick Vs. Technique

Nuance – Finding The Foundation For The Science Of Cooking – Trick Vs. Technique


I was studying to fill in gaps in my education. Engineering and computer science problems, and the math problems that entertained Einstein, require someone to be good at doing elementary math (arithmetic), algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. While I was doing this, I got a copy of Euclid’s Elements, and I read the forward. It was written by someone that used manuscripts from London and Paris and other places. After searching around on the internet, I discovered that people from Portugal have an interesting and technical approach to cooking food. I lacked the knowledge I needed to describe what I was searching to understand. There was something similar to the forward in Euclid’s Elements and recipes from Portugal. What I was searching for appeared to be related to math and science. Not necessarily contemporary industrial science, but natural philosophy and mathematics. While I was searching the internet for a cookbook, I found Escoffier. His books seemed to excite me in the same way that a geometry book excites me. After meeting Escoffier, I found Jacques Pépin. At his Facebook website, he has introduced me to gastronomy, Brillat-Savarin, and Oliver Raymond. His recipes are very exciting. After shopping for cookware, I met Thomas Keller. I read his books often. His books and my experience cooking with his recipes, and the recipes I have from meeting Jacques Pépin, led me to what I originally needed to know. I needed to know that a culinary artist must work to have new techniques and methods. Techniques and methods give a person the opportunity to think and understand how to cook. A collection of techniques and methods may be similar to learning the foundations of a science. Without knowing techniques and methods, I was collecting tricks for cooking. I believe that people would reject me if I said the phrase “tricks of the trade” because this would be a clear sign that I lack something that is important to the pretensions of my culture. I believed that people would believe that I am ignorant. Because contemporary philosophy is usually psychology, and since elementary knowledge is something given to children, I lacked the ability to be creative. I have had to give myself seminary lessons, prepare to read ancient Greek philosophy, and to be able to do arithmetic and algebra to solve problems, and finally study the culinary arts to recover from being abandoned to live as a critic of psychology. I am very happy that I met these chefs because they have given me the opportunity to be happy. I am now able to understand how I can use science to be a more creative person.


How To Make Mayonnaise – Une Emulsion Froide – A Cold Emulsion

How To Make Mayonnaise – Une Emulsion Froide – A Cold Emulsion





Today I am making mayonnaise with Jacques Pépin and Emeril Lagasse using the book The French Cook: Sauces by Holly Herrick. Emeril Lagasse has many exciting recipes for making mayonnaise. I chose the recipe in this blog post by Emeril Lagasse because it uses cayenne pepper. After putting this mayonnaise in the refrigerator for about an hour, I was able to believe that the flavor of the mayonnaise was great.

An emulsion is a sauce made with two immiscible liquids. People cannot mix immiscible liquids without an emulsifier. From a chemical point of view, an emulsifier probably bonds the molecules of the immiscible liquids. Mayonnaise is a type of emulsion. I am not able to find a satisfying explanation about why mayonnaise is an emulsion. Some explanations suggest the immiscible liquids in mayonnaise are the egg yolks and the oil. Other explanations explain that the vinegar and mustard contain water, and that egg yolks and an emulsifier in mustard emulsifies the water in the vinegar and the mustard with the oil. The latter (second) explanation is consistent with my experience reading about emulsifiers in books for culinary artists. The former (first) explanation requires someone to believe that the emulsifier is an immiscible liquid. [1][2][3]

Here are the things people need to know about making mayonnaise:

  1. People should believe that making mayonnaise is easy (and exciting)
  2. Use a non-reactive glass bowl because
    • Stainless may change the color of the mayonnaise
    • Copper and acid react and they will change the color of the mayonnaise
  3. Clean the bowl with white vinegar
  4. The ingredients should be room temperature
  5. Since bacteria in eggs can make someone ill, consider pasteurizing the eggs
    • Cook the eggs at 150°F/65.6°C for 4 minutes
    • Consider putting the eggs in ice water to stop them from cooking
  6. Some people explain that 1 egg yolk can emulsify 2/3 cup of oil, other ingredients may also contain emulsifiers
    • Consider this explanation as a reason for putting everything but the oil in the bowl before beating the ingredients to make the mayonnaise
  7. Using a spout on a bottle of oil may be appealing to some people
    • IMG_6344
      Fig. 1: Using A Spout
  8. Most people may use white pepper when making mayonnaise, some people may use other type of pepper, cayenne is an alternative to white pepper
  9. French mayonnaise is commonly made with Dijon, some people argue that adding Dijon makes the mayonnaise a rémoulade
  10. Most people may use (white) wine vinegar when making mayonnaise, someone probably may use any type of vinegar
  11. Mix the mayonnaise in one direction, because without doing science, and since mayonnaise is expensive to make, anything that offends the creaminess or smoothness of the mayonnaise can seem threatening or similar to anticipating the disappointment experienced when making curdled mayonnaise; the mayonnaise can appear to be chunky when using an electric whisk
  12. Mayonnaise can be made with vegetable, canola, sunflower, corn, and olive oil
  13. Using vegetable oil makes mayonnaise that tastes similarly to Hellmann’s mayonnaise
  14. A combination of canola, vegetable, and olive oil was interesting (1/2 cup canola, 1/4 cup vegetable, 1/4 cup olive oil)
  15. Bitter olive oil makes terrible mayonnaise
  16. Mayonnaise made with greater proportions of olive oil is probably good to use with sandwiches, but it is not exciting to eat with a spoon. Bitter olive oil also can make a vinaigrette offensive. The confusing problem is that the vinaigrette or mayonnaise may not be offensive on a sandwich or salad. Since there are so many different types of olive oil, my experience only applies to bitter extra virgin olive oil. A light olive oil may be as pleasing to use as canola oil.
  17. An electric whisk can be used to make recipes for making mayonnaise in a food processor. Use a bowl that is barely larger than the whisk, use the highest setting on the mixer, and mix the mayonnaise in one direction.

Pasteurizing The Eggs

Making Mayonnaise With Jacques Pépin


Making Mayonnaise With Emeril Lagasse With An Electric Whisk


Notes: 1) (Emeril Lagasse) vegetable oil makes mayonnaise with the flavor of Hellmann’s mayonnaise (Hellman’s may be popular) (1 cup vegetable oil or 1 cup vegetable oil + 1/4 cup olive oil), 2) (Thomas Keller) use canola oil or the canola oil used to make garlic confit, 3) (Thomas Keller) possibly use canola and French mustard (Edmond Fallot), 4) (Jacques Pépin) use greater proportions of flavorful ingredients: vinegar, use walnut, or tarragon oil, 5) use vinaigrette recipes for creating a new mayonnaise (sherry vinegar and red wine vinegar, balsamic vinegar), 6) consider adding fruit to mayonnaise, 7) experiment with different types of salt, 8) consider what the majority of people may prefer, 9) mayonnaise with a lot of mustard flavor may be called dijonnaise

Notes: 1) mayonesa: soybean oil, egg yolks, water, distilled vinegar, sugar, iodized salt, spices, lime juice concentrate, disodium edta (added to protect flavor), extractives of paprika, natural flavor, and extractives of red pepper, 2) water may be used to thin the mayonnaise

Download The Recipes:

Mayonnaise Of Jacques Pépin

Emeril’s Homemade Mayonnaise

Things People Need To Know About Making Mayonnaise

1. Holly Herrick: The French Cook: Sauces (Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2013), 75-78.

2. Jacques PépinJacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 124-126, 56-59.

3. Emeril Lagasse: Emeril’s Kicked-Up Sandwiches: Stacked with Flavor (New York: William Morrow, 2012), 309.

4. Fig. 1. Holly Herrick: The French Cook: Sauces (Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2013), 78.

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake



I started with a recipe in a book of cooking techniques. Since I have very little experience baking, and since much of the information on genoise cakes may be difficult to use and understand without experience baking, I had to make this cake several times. The first recipe that I used may have suggested that a hand mixer should be used to beat the batter over a saucepan of hot water. My hand mixer and mixing bowl combination cannot thicken or triple the volume of the batter. In my kitchen, only a stand mixer can create the batter. The saucepan of hot water should be taken off the stove, and the batter should probably only be beaten over the water until it is barely warm. The batter may be warmed to melt the sugar and to create a liquid that can be beaten to create a smooth batter that does not contain course sugar crystals. Videos from Gourmet Magazine, Everyday Food, and The Jacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques were very helpful resources.

This cake uses the recipe of Jacques Pépin. His cake seems to have a perfect texture and flavor. I believe that Jacques Pépin is usually very exciting and reliable. I did not add vanilla because I did not believe that adding vanilla was authentic. In general, I believe that 3 eggs should be used to make an 8-inch genoise cake and 5 eggs should be used to make a 9-inch genoise cake. Various recipes on the internet use about 1 cup of sugar and about 1 cup of flour. Using more flour probably makes the cake more dense, and using more sugar probably makes the cake more sweet. I am going to make the original recipe I used in the future. It uses more sugar and flour than the recipe of Jacques Pépin.

The top of a genoise cake should probably be light yellow and soft, not browned. The baking times in the recipes that I observed are much longer than I required to make an attractively baked genoise cake. I would recommend checking a cake after 15 minutes. Because the cakes are leavened with air, the cakes might collapse if the oven door is opened before the cakes are firm. The best indicator might be the smell. The cakes are probably baked perfectly just after smelling an attractive sweet smell. The smell of the genoise browning is not as attractive as the sweet smell. Using Jacques Pépin’s recipe with a springform pan did not appear to work well.

Jacques Pépin says that if the cake is not enriched with butter, then the cake may only have to beaten for 5 minutes. Adding the butter may deflate the cake. Beating the batter for a longer period of time appears to prevent the batter from deflating. I added pictures that may prove that the batter deflates. I sprinkled the flour into the batter using a strainer while folding the batter with one hand. Folding a mixture that has been relaxed seems to take less effort. I explained what relaxing a mixture is in my blog post on soufflés. I mixed a cup of the batter with melted butter. Then, I folded the mixture into the batter.

Notes: 1) someone can put berries between the layers of cake to support the top layer of cake

Decorating The Cake

Baking The Genoise

Making The Mousse


Imbibing The Genoise With Light Syrup And Kirschwasser

Making The Genoise With A Hand Mixer (Fail)

Making The Genoise In A Springform Pan After Beating For 5  Minutes (Fail)

Making The Genoise In A Springform Pan After Beating For 10 Minutes (Remove Top With Knife)

Download The Recipes:

Genoise And Strawberry Mousse Cake


Strawberry Mousse

Light Syrup

1. Jeni Wright, Eric Treuille: Le Cordon Bleu Complete Cooking Techniques (New York: William Morrow And Company, Inc., 1996), 274, 281, 312-313, 315.

2. Jacques PépinJacques Pépin’s Complete Techniques (New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001), 124-126, 608-610.

Baked Rabbit With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts Of Jacques Pépin

Baked Rabbit With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts Of Jacques Pépin


This was a very successful dinner with Jacques Pépin. The rabbit was very good! I am so happy. This was my first rabbit. Rabbit meat is similar to chicken. The meat has a lot of flavor. The mustard crust was the best coating I had ever eaten on baked meat. I had to improvise because I did not have any bread. I am happy that I used fine bread crumbs. The Brussels sprouts sautéed with bacon were great!

The rabbit was browned, coated with mustard, and the mustard was coated with bread crumbs mixed with garlic and olive oil. The rabbit was baked for 20 minutes at 425°F/220°C. The book with cooking techniques from the Le Cordon Blue has instructions for jointing a rabbit. Someone should consider using an old chef’s knife. I put a cloth over the spine of the knife near the tip of the blade and I pushed on the cloth while I pushed down on the handle. This permits me to use the knife as a lever and to use my body weight to cut rabbits and chickens. Someday I might have poultry shears, but until I have poultry shears, this is my technique for jointing poultry and game. The rabbit is cut where the legs meet the back, and where the ribs meet the back. After cutting at these places, there will be three pieces of rabbit. Each piece can then be split in half using my technique for jointing rabbits and chickens.

Notes: 1) when compared to chicken, the meat of a rabbit is all white meat, 2) rabbit meat is moist, 3) most of the meat is a little more firm than chicken meat

Sometimes a writer at the New York Times named Sam Sifton includes seminary lessons in his weekly emails. He mentions interesting things about religion during religious holidays. I have a philosophical background. I have included something humorous that I have written to understand Easter based on my interpretation of the Bible. A French person may call their interpretation of the Bible their hermeneutics.

Why Jesus Christ Had To Die, Ideas From 2017

Baked Rabbit Cut To Make 6 Pieces With Mustard Crust And Sautéed Brussels Sprouts

The Rabbit

The Brussels Sprouts

Download The Recipe:

Fricassee of Brussels Sprouts and Bacon

Spanish Tortilla Of Jacques Pépin

Spanish Tortilla Of Jacques Pépin


This Spanish tortilla was one of the most exciting things I have ever eaten. The fresh flavors of scallions and chives combined with potatoes and chorizo was perfect. The talent of Jacques Pépin for making great recipes is outstanding. He has taken me to places that I have always wanted to be. I recommend this recipe. I only have a 12-inch non-stick pan. A smaller pan might make a more attractive tortilla, since the potatoes would cause more of the vegetables to appear above the eggs.

People should appreciate Jacques Pépin because he is a prolific author of original recipes (that are very exciting). Jacques Pépin makes French Cuisine. Jacques Pépin appears to use scallions, garlic, chives, tarragon, and lot of pepper (as much as 3/4 teaspoon) in many of his recipes. He may not beat his egg whites to make stiff peaks. He publishes cookbooks and books with cooking techniques. He introduces people to gastronomy at his website at Facebook.

Molly Stevens is a cookbook author that adds information from a sommelier to make wine paring suggestions. Thomas Keller is a chef that uses various salts to finish his recipes. He would flavor and garnish something with flakes of salt [1]. I have to modify my consumer strategy to fulfill my cultural desires. I am excited because I am able to have most of the ingredients that I need to enjoy this cookbook. I searched in many neighborhoods where I live. I have not visited some of these neighborhoods for about a decade. Rolling around the city on buses to find ingredients for making French cuisine is exciting.

Download The Recipe:

Spanish Tortilla

Chicken With Chili Sauce And Achiote Rice Of Jacques Pépin

Chicken With Chili Sauce And Achiote Rice Of Jacques Pépin






I have always wanted to know how to create the flavor of this rice. This is the first time that I have used dried chili peppers to make something in a casserole. The flavor of the rice reminds me of some great experience I had when I was young. I was very excited when I found annatto [1][2]. People use annatto to make achiote [1][2] paste. Some people suggest substituting saffron with annatto. This recipe makes me think about Mesoamerica, but people somewhere in Mexico may cook similar to this everyday. Mexican gastronomy is something that I am excited to know.  The combination of the chili sauce and the achiote rice creates a very pleasing flavor. The dried chilies create a mild and smoky flavor. Since I used a steel rondeau [1][2], I used some oil, and I deglazed the pan after cooking the chicken with the water used to make the rice. The texture of chayote [1][2][3] squash are similar to the texture of apples; the chayote squash is a pear shaped squash with the crisp texture more similar to an apple than a pear. Chayote squash have a delicate flavor when they are steamed, and maybe they have a stronger flavor that is similar to a combination of zucchini and yellow squash when they are stewed. The contrast between the smoky flavors of the chili sauce and the squash makes this recipe very healthy and refreshing. The amount of squash and the scallions may be the ingredients that make this recipe more French. I got the spices that I needed to make this recipe from Penzeys. These spices were very flavorful and aromatic. I am so excited to know that this store exists. I found Penzeys because a cookbook author named Molly Stevens described how exciting Aleppo Pepper is from this store. I would recommend this recipe to people that are ready to experience Mexican gastronomy.

Making Achiote Paste

10 Piece Chicken (“Bone In” Breasts)

Making Chili Sauce

Online Retailers That Sell Spices:

Morton Bassett Spices


World Spice Merchants


Download The Recipes:

Achiote Paste

Chicken with Chili Sauce and Achiote Rice

Octopus Stew With Onions, Paprika, And Wine Of Jacques Pépin

Octopus Stew With Onions, Paprika, And Wine Of Jacques Pépin


The flavor of this stew was exciting. Two hours of stewing the octopus made it soft and tender. Octopus, chardonnay, tomatoes, and paprika combined with scallions, extra large diced carrots, celery, onions, and finely chopped chives seemed to create something French in a Spanish broth. The octopus had texture and flavor, but I believe that most of the flavor of the octopus was in the broth. The broth was very flavorful. This was a perfect recipe. The recipes of Jacques Pépin are usually very exciting and memorable. I am very happy that I found the cookbook Heart & Soul in the Kitchen. I discovered Jacques Pépin while thinking about Escoffier. It is probably time to start thinking about making a French sauce.

Note: 1) I prepared the rice with 2 tablespoons of unsalted butter and 1 teaspoon of salt (fine French sea salt)

Download The Recipe:

Octopus Stew with Onions, Paprika, and Wine